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Plant Protection Knowledge

Plant Protection is responsible for pest risk analysis which evaluates the level of risk and establishes measures to reduce the risk, in order to prevent economic loss which may impact on agricultural crops and the natural environment once such pests are introduced into Barbados from oversees. Plant Protection conducts pest risk assessment in accordance with the regulations as set out by the IPPC.

 Pest Risk Analysis Procedure

  • Initiation
  • Pest Risk Assessment
  • Pest Risk Management
  • Documentation of the Pest Risk Analysis
  • Review

 

INITIATION

The goal of this first step is to identify the pest (s) and pathway (s) which are of quarantine concern to Barbados.

The PRA process may start as a result of

  • The identification of a pathway - usually a commodity e. g fruit or vegetable - that presents a potential pest hazard
  • The identification of a pest - e.g. fruit fly - that may require phytosanitary measures.
  • The review or revision of certain phytosanitary policies and priorities, e.g. new bilateral trade agreement with Costa Rica
  • Any other circumstances where one is deemed necessary on application for permission to import a product into barbados

At the end of the initiation stage, pests and pathways will have been identified. Current relevant information will have been collected.  Any assumptions will have been made. PPQ would have determined the possible candidates – quarantine pests - for phytosanitary measures.

 PEST RISK ASSESSMENT

  • Pest categorization
  • Assessment of the probability of introduction and spread
  • Assessment of potential economic consequences (including Environmental or other impacts)

 

PEST CATEGORIZATION

The categorization process allows the PPQ officials to determine definitely whether the pest (s) associated with a potential pathway are quarantine pests.

Identity of the pest

The pest should be clearly defined to ensure the assessment is being performed on a single distinct organism- This will ensure that biological and other information is relevant to the organism in question.

 

POTENTIAL FOR ESTABLISHMENT AND SPREAD IN BARBADOS

Evidence should be available to support the conclusion that the pest under assessment could become established or spread in Barbados.

 

POTENTIAL FOR ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES IN BARBADOS

There should be clear indications that the pest is likely to have an unacceptable economic impact (including an adverse environmental impact) on Barbados

 

CONCLUSION OF PEST CATEGORIZATION

After the assessment has been completed and the results determine that the pest has the potential to become a quarantine pest, the PRA should continue. If the pest does not fulfill all the criteria then the PRA should stop

 

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROBABILITY OF INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD

The probability of entry of a pest depends on the pathways from the exporting country to the destination and the frequency and quantity of pests associated with them.

The higher the number of pathways and the greater the frequency, the greater the probability of pests entering Barbados"

Other related factors:

  • Probability of survival during transport and storage
  • Probability of transfer to a suitable host
  • Probability of establishment
  • Availability of suitable hosts, alternate hosts and vectors
  • Suitability of the environment
  • Probability of spread after establishment

 

ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL ECONOMIC CONSEQUENGES

The basic method for estimating the potential economic importance of pests in this section also applies to:

  • pests affecting uncultivated/unmanaged plants weeds and/or invasive plants
  • pests affecting plants through effects on other organisms.

DIRECT PEST EFFECTS

For identification and characterization of the direct effects of the pest on each potential host in the PRA area, or those effects which are host-specific, the following are examples that could be considered:

  • known or potential host plants (in the field, under protected cultivation, or in the wild)
  • types, amount and frequency of damage
  • crop losses, in yield and quality
  • biotic factors (e.g. adaptability and virulence of the pest) affecting damage and losses
  • abiotic factors (e.g. climate) affecting damage and losses
    rate of spread
  • rate of reproduction
  • control measures (including existing measures), their efficacy and cost
  • effect on existing production practices
  • environmental effects.

INDIRECT PEST EFFECTS

For identification and characterization of the indirect effects of the pest in the PRA area, or those effects that are not host-specific, the following are examples that could be considered:

  • effects on domestic and export markets, including in particular effects on export market access. The potential consequences for market access which may result if the pest becomes established, should be estimated. This involves considering the extent of any phytosanitary regulations imposed (or likely to be imposed) by trading partners
  • changes to producer costs or input demands, including control costs
  • changes to domestic or foreign consumer demand for a product resulting from quality changes
  • environmental and other undesired effects of control measures
  • feasibility and cost of eradication or containment
  • capacity to act as a vector for other pests
  • resources needed for additional research and advice
  • social and other effects (e.g. tourism).

 PEST RISK MANAGEMENT

The conclusion of the pest risk assessment phase allows regulators to determine whether risk mitigation steps are necessary and the strength of measures that need to be implemented. We have to identify options and resources both in Barbados and in the exporting country. These must then be balanced against what we consider to be our acceptable level of risk

 

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