logo2

Ministry's Menu


Home Knowledge Centre Phytosanitary terms and definitions
Phytosanitary terms and definitions Print E-mail
Plant Protection Knowledge

The International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) is an international plant health agreement, established in 1952, that aims to protect cultivated and wild plants by preventing the introduction and spread of pests (see definition below).

The Plant Protection departments of the Ministry of Agriculture function as the National Plant Protection organisation (NPPO) of Barbados and in this role we must provide a standard definition of the technical terms used within Plant Protection.

absorbed dose

Quantity of radiating energy (in gray) absorbed per unit of mass of a specified target [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

Additional Declaration

A statement that is required by an importing country to be entered on a Phytosanitary Certificate and which provides specific additional information on a consignment in relation to regulated pests [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2005]

antagonist

An organism (usually pathogen) which does no significant damage to the host but its colonization of the host protects the host from significant subsequent damage by a pest [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

area

An officially defined country, part of a country or all or parts of several countries [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; based on the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures]

area endangered

See endangered area

area of low pest prevalence

An area, whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries, as identified by the competent authorities, in which a specific pest occurs at low levels and which is subject to effective surveillance, control or eradication measures [IPPC, 1997]

bark

The layer of a woody trunk, branch or root outside the cambium [CPM, 2008]

bark-free wood

Wood from which all bark, except ingrown bark around knots and bark pockets between rings of annual growth, has been removed [ISPM No. 15, 2002; revised CPM, 2008]

beneficial organism 

Any organism directly or indirectly advantageous to plants or plant products, including biological control agents [ISPM No. 3, 2005]

biological control agent

A natural enemy, antagonist or competitor, or other organism, used for pest control [ISPM No. 3, 1996; revised ISPM No. 3, 2005]

buffer zone

An area surrounding or adjacent to an area officially delimited for phytosanitary purposes in order to minimize the probability of spread of the target pest into or out of the delimited area, and subject to phytosanitary or other control measures, if appropriate [ISPM No. 10, 1999; revised ISPM No. 22, 2005; CPM, 2007]

bulbs and tubers

A commodity class for dormant underground parts of plants intended for planting (includes corms and rhizomes) [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

certificate

An official document which attests to the phytosanitary status of any consignment affected by phytosanitary regulations [FAO, 1990]

chemical pressure impregnation

Treatment of wood with a chemical preservative through a process of pressure in accordance with an official technical specification [ISPM No. 15, 2002; revised ICPM, 2005]

clearance (of a consignment)

Verification of compliance with phytosanitary regulations [FAO, 1995]

Commission

The Commission on phytosanitary measures established under Article XI [IPPC, 1997]

commodity

A type of plant, plant product, or other article being moved for trade or other purpose [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

commodity class

A category of similar commodities that can be considered together in phytosanitary regulations [FAO, 1990]

commodity pest list

A list of pests occurring in an area which may be associated with a specific commodity [CEPM, 1996]

competitor

An organism which competes with pests for essential elements (e.g. food, shelter) in the environment [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

compliance procedure (for a consignment) 

Official procedure used to verify that a consignment complies with phytosanitary import requirements or phytosanitary measures related to transit [CEPM, 1999; revised CPM, 2009]

consignment

A quantity of plants, plant products and/or other articles being moved from one country to another and covered, when required, by a single phytosanitary certificate (a consignment may be composed of one or more commodities or lots) [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

consignment in transit

A consignment which passes through a country without being imported, and that may be subject to phytosanitary measures [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1996; CEPM 1999; ICPM, 2002; ISPM No. 25, 2006; formerly country of transit]

containment

Application of phytosanitary measures in and around an infested area to prevent spread of a pest [FAO, 1995]

contaminating pest

A pest that is carried by a commodity and, in the case of plants and plant products, does not infest those plants or plant products [CEPM, 1996; revised CEPM, 1999]

contamination

Presence in a commodity, storage place, conveyance or container, of pests or other regulated articles, not constituting an infestation (see infestation) [CEPM, 1997; revised CEPM, 1999]

control (of a pest)

Suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population [FAO, 1995]

control point

A step in a system where specific procedures can be applied to achieve a defined effect and can be measured, monitored, controlled and corrected [ISPM No. 14, 2002]

controlled area

A regulated area which an NPPO has determined to be the minimum area necessary to prevent spread of a pest from a quarantine area [CEPM, 1996]

corrective action plan (in an area) 

Documented plan of phytosanitary actions to be implemented in an area officially delimited for phytosanitary purposes if a pest is detected or a specified pest level is exceeded or in the case of faulty implementation of officially established procedures [CPM, 2009]

country of origin (of a consignment of plant products)

Country where the plants from which the plant products are derived were grown [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1996; CEPM, 1999]

country of origin (of a consignment of plants) 

Country where the plants were grown [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1996; CEPM, 1999]

country of origin (of regulated articles other than plants and plant products)

Country where the regulated articles were first exposed to contamination by pests [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1996; CEPM, 1999]

cut flowers and branches

A commodity class for fresh parts of plants intended for decorative use and not for planting [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

debarked wood

Wood that has been subjected to any process that results in the removal of bark. (Debarked wood is not necessarily bark-free wood.) [CPM, 2008; replacing debarking]

delimiting survey

Survey conducted to establish the boundaries of an area considered to be infested by or free from a pest [FAO, 1990]

detection survey

Survey conducted in an area to determine if pests are present [FAO, 1990, revised FAO, 1995]

detention

Keeping a consignment in official custody or confinement, as a phytosanitary measure (see quarantine) [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; ICPM, 2005]

devitalization

A procedure rendering plants or plant products incapable of germination, growth or further reproduction [ICPM, 2001]

dose mapping

Measurement of the absorbed dose distribution within a process load through the use of dosimeters placed at specific locations within the process load [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

dosimeter

A device that, when irradiated, exhibits a quantifiable change in some property of the device which can be related to absorbed dose in a given material using appropriate analytical instrumentation and techniques [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

dosimetry

A system used for determining absorbed dose, consisting of dosimeters, measurement instruments and their associated reference standards, and procedures for the system’s use [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

dunnage

Wood packaging material used to secure or support a commodity but which does not remain associated with the commodity [FAO, 1990; revised ISPM No. 15, 2002]

ecosystem

A dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their abiotic environment interacting as a functional unit [ISPM No. 3, 1996; revised ICPM, 2005]

efficacy (treatment)

A defined, measurable, and reproducible effect by a prescribed treatment [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

emergency action

A prompt phytosanitary action undertaken in a new or unexpected phytosanitary situation [ICPM, 2001]

emergency measure

A phytosanitary measure established as a matter of urgency in a new or unexpected phytosanitary situation. An emergency measure may or may not be a provisional measure [ICPM, 2001; revised ICPM, 2005]

endangered area

An area where ecological factors favour the establishment of a pest whose presence in the area will result in economically important loss (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [FAO, 1995]

entry (of a consignment)

Movement through a point of entry into an area [FAO, 1995]

entry (of a pest)

Movement of a pest into an area where it is not yet present, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled [FAO, 1995]

equivalence (of phytosanitary measures)

The situation where, for a specified pest risk, different phytosanitary measures achieve a contracting party’s appropriate level of protection [FAO, 1995; revised CEPM, 1999; based on the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures; revised ISPM No. 24, 2005]

eradication

Application of phytosanitary measures to eliminate a pest from an area [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; formerly eradicate]

establishment

Perpetuation, for the foreseeable future, of a pest within an area after entry [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997; formerly established]

field

A plot of land with defined boundaries within a place of production on which a commodity is grown [FAO, 1990]

find free

To inspect a consignment, field or place of production and consider it to be free from a specific pest [FAO, 1990]

free from (of a consignment, field or place of production)

Without pests (or a specific pest) in numbers or quantities that can be detected by the application of phytosanitary procedures [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999]

fresh

Living; not dried, deep-frozen or otherwise conserved [FAO, 1990]

fruits and vegetables

A commodity class for fresh parts of plants intended for consumption or processing and not for planting [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

fumigation

Treatment with a chemical agent that reaches the commodity wholly or primarily in a gaseous state [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

germplasm

Plants intended for use in breeding or conservation programmes [FAO, 1990]

grain

A commodity class for seeds intended for processing or consumption and not for planting (see seeds) [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

gray (Gy)

Unit of absorbed dose where 1 Gy is equivalent to the absorption of 1 joule per kilogram (1 Gy = 1 J.kg -1 ) [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

growing medium

Any material in which plant roots are growing or intended for that purpose [FAO, 1990]

growing period (of a plant species) 

Time period of active growth during a growing season [ICPM, 2003]

growing season

Period or periods of the year when plants actively grow in an area, place of production or production site [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2003]

habitat

Part of an ecosystem with conditions in which an organism naturally occurs or can establish [ICPM, 2005]

harmonization

The establishment, recognition and application by different countries of phytosanitary measures based on common standards [FAO, 1995; revised CEPM, 1999; based on the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures]

harmonized phytosanitary measures

Phytosanitary measures established by contracting parties to the IPPC, based on international standards [IPPC, 1997]

heat treatment

The process in which a commodity is heated until it reaches a minimum temperature for a minimum period of time according to an official technical specification [ISPM No. 15, 2002; revised ICPM, 2005]

hitch-hiker pest

See contaminating pest

host pest list

A list of pests that infest a plant species, globally or in an area [CEPM, 1996; revised CEPM, 1999]

host range

Species capable, under natural conditions, of sustaining a specific pest or other organism [FAO, 1990; revised ISPM No. 3, 2005]

Import Permit

Official document authorizing importation of a commodity in accordance with specified phytosanitary import requirements [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; ICPM, 2005]

inactivation

Rendering micro-organisms incapable of development [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

incidence (of a pest) 

Proportion or number of units in which a pest is present in a sample, consignment, field or other defined population [CPM, 2009]

incursion

An isolated population of a pest recently detected in an area, not known to be established, but expected to survive for the immediate future [ICPM, 2003]

infestation (of a commodity)

Presence in a commodity of a living pest of the plant or plant product concerned. Infestation includes infection [CEPM, 1997; revised CEPM, 1999]

inspection

Official visual examination of plants, plant products or other regulated articles to determine if pests are present and/or to determine compliance with phytosanitary regulations [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; formerly inspect]

inspector

Person authorized by a National Plant Protection Organization to discharge its functions [FAO, 1990]

integrity (of a consignment)

Composition of a consignment as described by its phytosanitary certificate or other officially acceptable document, maintained without loss, addition or substitution [CPM, 2007]

intended use

Declared purpose for which plants, plant products or other articles are imported, produced or used  [ISPM No. 16, 2002; revised CPM, 2009]

interception (of a consignment)

The refusal or controlled entry of an imported consignment due to failure to comply with phytosanitary regulations [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

interception (of a pest)

The detection of a pest during inspection or testing of an imported consignment [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1996]

intermediate quarantine

Quarantine in a country other than the country of origin or destination [CEPM, 1996]

International Plant Protection Convention

International Plant Protection Convention, as deposited with FAO in Rome in 1951 and as subsequently amended [FAO, 1990]

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures

An international standard adopted by the Conference of FAO, the Interim Commission on phytosanitary measures or the Commission on phytosanitary measures, established under the IPPC [CEPM, 1996; revised CEPM, 1999]

international standards

International standards established in accordance with Article X paragraph 1 and 2 of the IPPC [IPPC, 1997]

introduction

The entry of a pest resulting in its establishment [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997]

inundative release

The release of large numbers of mass-produced biological control agents or beneficial organisms with the expectation of achieving a rapid effect [ISPM No. 3, 1996; revised ISPM No. 3, 2005]

ionizing radiation

Charged particles and electromagnetic waves that as a result of physical interaction create ions by either primary or secondary processes [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

IPPC

International Plant Protection Convention, as deposited in 1951 with FAO in Rome and as subsequently amended [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

irradiation

Treatment with any type of ionizing radiation [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

ISPM

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures [CEPM, 1996; revised ICPM, 2001]

kiln-drying

A process in which wood is dried in a closed chamber using heat and/or humidity control to achieve a required moisture content [ISPM No. 15, 2002]

legislation

Any act, law, regulation, guideline or other administrative order promulgated by a government [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

living modified organism

Any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology [Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2000]

LMO

living modified organism [ISPM No. 11, 2004]

lot

A number of units of a single commodity, identifiable by its homogeneity of composition, origin etc., forming part of a consignment [FAO, 1990]

mark

An official stamp or brand, internationally recognized, applied to a regulated article to attest its phytosanitary status [ISPM No. 15, 2002]

minimum absorbed dose (Dmin)

The localized minimum absorbed dose within the process load [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

modern biotechnology

The application of:

a.  in vitro nucleic acid techniques, including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles; or

b.  fusion of cells beyond the taxonomic family,

that overcome natural physiological reproductive or recombination barriers and that are not techniques used in traditional breeding and selection. [Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2000]

monitoring

An official ongoing process to verify phytosanitary situations [CEPM, 1996]

monitoring survey

Ongoing survey to verify the characteristics of a pest population [FAO, 1995]

National Plant Protection Organization

Official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC [FAO, 1990; formerly Plant Protection Organization (National)]

natural enemy

An organism which lives at the expense of another organism in its area of origin and which may help to limit the population of that organism. This includes parasitoids, parasites, predators, phytophagous organisms and pathogens [ISPM No. 3, 1996; revised ISPM No. 3, 2005]

naturally occurring

A component of an ecosystem or a selection from a wild population, not altered by artificial means [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

non-quarantine pest

Pest that is not a quarantine pest for an area [FAO, 1995]

NPPO

National Plant Protection Organization [FAO, 1990; ICPM, 2001]

occurrence

The presence in an area of a pest officially recognized to be indigenous or introduced and not officially reported to have been eradicated [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; ISPM No. 17; formerly occur]

official

Established, authorized or performed by a National Plant Protection Organization [FAO, 1990]

official control

The active enforcement of mandatory phytosanitary regulations and the application of mandatory phytosanitary procedures with the objective of eradication or containment of quarantine pests or for the management of regulated non-quarantine pests (see Glossary Supplement No. 1) [ICPM, 2001]

organism

Any biotic entity capable of reproduction or replication in its naturally occurring state [ISPM No. 3, 1996; revised ISPM No. 3, 2005]

outbreak

A recently detected pest population, including an incursion, or a sudden significant increase of an established pest population in an area [FAO, 1995; revised ICPM, 2003]

packaging

Material used in supporting, protecting or carrying a commodity [ISPM No. 20, 2004]

parasite

An organism which lives on or in a larger organism, feeding upon it [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

parasitoid

An insect parasitic only in its immature stages, killing its host in the process of its development, and free living as an adult [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

pathogen

Micro-organism causing disease [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

pathway

Any means that allows the entry or spread of a pest [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

pest

Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997]

pest categorization

The process for determining whether a pest has or has not the characteristics of a quarantine pest or those of a regulated non-quarantine pest [ISPM No. 11, 2001]

pest diagnosis

The process of detection and identification of a pest [ISPM No. 27, 2006]

Pest Free Area

An area in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained [FAO, 1995]

pest free place of production

Place of production in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period [ISPM No. 10, 1999]

pest free production site

A defined portion of a place of production in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period and that is managed as a separate unit in the same way as a pest free place of production [ISPM No. 10, 1999]

pest record

A document providing information concerning the presence or absence of a specific pest at a particular location at a certain time, within an area (usually a country) under described circumstances [CEPM, 1997]

pest risk (for quarantine pests) 

The probability of introduction and spread of a pest and the magnitude of the associated potential economic consequences (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [ISPM No. 2, 2007]

pest risk (for regulated non-quarantine pests)

The probability that a pest in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [ISPM No. 2, 2007]

Pest Risk Analysis

(agreed interpretation)

The process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether an organism is a pest, whether it should be regulated, and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it [FAO, 1995; revised IPPC, 1997; ISPM No. 2, 2007]

pest risk assessment (for quarantine pests)

Evaluation of the probability of the introduction and spread of a pest and the magnitude of the associated potential economic consequences (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [FAO, 1995; revised ISPM No. 11, 2001; ISPM No. 2, 2007]

pest risk assessment (for regulated non-quarantine pests)

Evaluation of the probability that a pest in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [ICPM, 2005]

pest risk management (for quarantine pests)

Evaluation and selection of options to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of a pest [FAO, 1995; revised ISPM No. 11, 2001]

pest risk management (for regulated non-quarantine pests)

Evaluation and selection of options to reduce the risk that a pest in plants for planting causes an economically unacceptable impact on the intended use of those plants (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [ICPM, 2005]

pest status (in an area)

Presence or absence, at the present time, of a pest in an area, including where appropriate its distribution, as officially determined using expert judgement on the basis of current and historical pest records and other information [CEPM, 1997; revised ICPM, 1998]

PFA

Pest Free Area [FAO, 1995; revised ICPM, 2001]

phytosanitary action

An official operation, such as inspection, testing, surveillance or treatment, undertaken to implement phytosanitary measures [ICPM, 2001; revised ICPM, 2005]

Phytosanitary Certificate

Certificate patterned after the model certificates of the IPPC [FAO, 1990]

phytosanitary certification

Use of phytosanitary procedures leading to the issue of a Phytosanitary Certificate [FAO, 1990]

phytosanitary import requirements

Specific phytosanitary measures established by an importing country concerning consignments moving into that country [ICPM, 2005]

phytosanitary legislation

Basic laws granting legal authority to a National Plant Protection Organization from which phytosanitary regulations may be drafted [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

phytosanitary measure (agreed interpretation)

Any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests [FAO, 1995; revised IPPC, 1997; ISPM, 2002]

The agreed interpretation of the term phytosanitary measure accounts for the relationship of phytosanitary measures to regulated non-quarantine pests. This relationship is not adequately reflected in the definition found in Article II of the IPPC (1997).

phytosanitary procedure

Any official method for implementing phytosanitary measures including the performance of inspections, tests, surveillance or treatments in connection with regulated pests [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; ICPM, 2001; ICPM, 2005]

phytosanitary regulation

Official rule to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests, including establishment of procedures for phytosanitary certification (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; ICPM, 2001]

phytosanitary securityconsignment) (of a

Maintenance of the integrity of a consignment and prevention of its infestation and contamination by regulated pests, through the application of appropriate phytosanitary measures [CPM, 2009]

place of production

Any premises or collection of fields operated as a single production or farming unit. This may include production sites which are separately managed for phytosanitary purposes [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1999]

plant pest

See pest

plant products

Unmanufactured material of plant origin (including grain) and those manufactured products that, by their nature or that of their processing, may create a risk for the introduction and spread of pests [FAO, 1990; revised IPPC, 1997; formerly plant product]

plant protection organization (national)

See National Plant Protection Organization

plant quarantine

All activities designed to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests or to ensure their official control [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

planting (including replanting)

Any operation for the placing of plants in a growing medium, or by grafting or similar operations, to ensure their subsequent growth, reproduction or propagation [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM,1999]

plants

Living plants and parts thereof, including seeds and germplasm [FAO, 1990; revised IPPC, 1997]

plants for planting

Plants intended to remain planted, to be planted or replanted [FAO, 1990]

plants in vitro

A commodity class for plants growing in an aseptic medium in a closed container [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1999; ICPM, 2002; formerly plants in tissue culture]

point of entry

Airport, seaport or land border point officially designated for the importation of consignments, and/or entrance of passengers [FAO, 1995]

post-entry quarantine

Quarantine applied to a consignment after entry [FAO, 1995]

PRA

Pest Risk Analysis [FAO, 1995; revised ICPM, 2001]

PRA area

Area in relation to which a Pest Risk Analysis is conducted [FAO, 1995]

practically free

Of a consignment, field, or place of production, without pests (or a specific pest) in numbers or quantities in excess of those that can be expected to result from, and be consistent with good cultural and handling practices employed in the production and marketing of the commodity [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

pre-clearance

Phytosanitary certification and/or clearance in the country of origin, performed by or under the regular supervision of the National Plant Protection Organization of the country of destination [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

predator

A natural enemy that preys and feeds on other animal organisms, more than one of which are killed during its lifetime [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

process load

A volume of material with a specified loading configuration and treated as a single entity [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

processed wood material

Products that are a composite of wood constructed using glue, heat and pressure, or any combination thereof [ISPM No. 15, 2002]

prohibition

A phytosanitary regulation forbidding the importation or movement of specified pests or commodities [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

protected area

A regulated area that an NPPO has determined to be the minimum area necessary for the effective protection of an endangered area [FAO, 1990; omitted from FAO, 1995; new concept from CEPM, 1996]

provisional measure

A phytosanitary regulation or procedure established without full technical justification owing to current lack of adequate information. A provisional measure is subjected to periodic review and full technical justification as soon as possible [ICPM, 2001]

quarantine

Official confinement of regulated articles for observation and research or for further inspection, testing and/or treatment [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999]

quarantine area

An area within which a quarantine pest is present and is being officially controlled [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

quarantine pest

A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC 1997]

quarantine station

Official station for holding plants or plant products in quarantine [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; formerly quarantine station or facility]

raw wood

Wood which has not undergone processing or treatment [ISPM No. 15, 2002]

re-exported consignment

Consignment that has been imported into a country from which it is then exported. The consignment may be stored, split up, combined with other consignments or have its packaging changed (formerly country of re-export) [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1996; CEPM, 1999; ICPM, 2001; ICPM, 2002]

reference specimen

Specimen, from a population of a specific organism, conserved and accessible for the purpose of identification, verification or comparison. [ISPM No. 3, 2005; revised CPM, 2009]

refusal

Forbidding entry of a consignment or other regulated article when it fails to comply with phytosanitary regulations [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995]

Regional Plant Protection Organization

An intergovernmental organization with the functions laid down by Article IX of the IPPC [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; CEPM, 1999; formerly plant protection organization (regional)]

regional standards

Standards established by a Regional Plant Protection Organization for the guidance of the members of that organization [IPPC, 1997]

regulated area

An area into which, within which and/or from which plants, plant products and other regulated articles are subjected to phytosanitary regulations or procedures in order to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [CEPM, 1996; revised CEPM, 1999; ICPM, 2001]

regulated article

Any plant, plant product, storage place, packaging, conveyance, container, soil and any other organism, object or material capable of harbouring or spreading pests, deemed to require phytosanitary measures, particularly where international transportation is involved [FAO, 1990; revised FAO, 1995; IPPC, 1997]

regulated non-quarantine pest

A non-quarantine pest whose presence in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact and which is therefore regulated within the territory of the importing contracting party (see Glossary Supplement No. 2) [IPPC, 1997]

regulated pest

A quarantine pest or a regulated non-quarantine pest [IPPC, 1997]

release (into the environment)

Intentional liberation of an organism into the environment (see introduction and establishment) [ISPM No. 3, 1996]

release (of a consignment)

Authorization for entry after clearance [FAO, 1995]

replanting

See planting

required response

A specified level of effect for a treatment [ISPM No. 18, 2003]

restriction

A phytosanitary regulation allowing the importation or movement of specified commodities subject to specific requirements [CEPM, 1996, revised CEPM, 1999]

RNQP

Regulated non-quarantine pest [ISPM No. 16, 2002]

round wood

Wood not sawn longitudinally, carrying its natural rounded surface, with or without bark [FAO, 1990]

RPPO

Regional Plant Protection Organization [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

sawn wood

Wood sawn longitudinally, with or without its natural rounded surface with or without bark [FAO, 1990]

Secretary

Secretary of the Commission appointed pursuant to Article XII [IPPC, 1997]

seeds

A commodity class for seeds for planting or intended for planting and not for consumption or processing (see grain) [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

SIT

sterile insect technique [ISPM No. 3, 2005]

spread

Expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area [FAO, 1995]

standard

Document established by consensus and approved by a recognized body, that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context [FAO, 1995; ISO/IEC GUIDE 2:1991 definition]

sterile insect

An insect that, as a result of a specific treatment, is unable to reproduce [ISPM No. 3, 2005]

sterile insect technique

Method of pest control using area-wide inundative release of sterile insects to reduce reproduction in a field population of the same species [ISPM No. 3, 2005]

stored product

Unmanufactured plant product intended for consumption or processing, stored in a dried form (this includes in particular grain and dried fruits and vegetables) [FAO, 1990]

suppression

The application of phytosanitary measures in an infested area to reduce pest populations [FAO, 1995; revised CEPM, 1999]

surveillance

An official process which collects and records data on pest occurrence or absence by survey, monitoring or other procedures [CEPM, 1996]

survey

An official procedure conducted over a defined period of time to determine the characteristics of a pest population or to determine which species occur in an area [FAO, 1990; revised CEPM, 1996]

systems approach(es)

The integration of different risk management measures, at least two of which act independently, and which cumulatively achieve the appropriate level of protection against regulated pests [ISPM No. 14, 2002; revised ICPM, 2005]

technically justified

Justified on the basis of conclusions reached by using an appropriate pest risk analysis or, where applicable, another comparable examination and evaluation of available scientific information [IPPC, 1997]

test

Official examination, other than visual, to determine if pests are present or to identify pests [FAO, 1990]

tolerance level (of a pest)

Incidence of a pest specified as a threshold for action to control that pest or to prevent its spread or introduction [CPM, 2009]

transience

Presence of a pest that is not expected to lead to establishment [ISPM No. 8, 1998]

transit

See consignment in transit

transparency

The principle of making available, at the international level, phytosanitary measures and their rationale [FAO, 1995; revised CEPM, 1999; based on the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures]

treatment

Official procedure for the killing, inactivation or removal of pests, or for rendering pests infertile or for de-vitalization [FAO, 1990, revised FAO, 1995; ISPM No. 15, 2002; ISPM No. 18, 2003; ICPM, 2005]

treatment schedule

The critical parameters of a treatment which need to be met to achieve the intended outcome (i.e. the killing, inactivation or removal of pests, or rendering pests infertile, or de-vitalization) at a stated efficacy [ISPM No. 28, 2007]

visual examination

The physical examination of plants, plant products, or other regulated articles using the unaided eye, lens, stereoscope or microscope to detect pests or contaminants without testing or processing [ISPM No. 23, 2005]

wood

A commodity class for round wood, sawn wood, wood chips or dunnage, with or without bark [FAO, 1990; revised ICPM, 2001]

wood packaging material

Wood or wood products (excluding paper products) used in supporting, protecting or carrying a commodity (includes dunnage) [ISPM No. 15, 2002]

 

Add comment


Security code
Refresh

scroll to top