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A guide to Cotton Growing PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 20 December 2013 10:19











Peter BELL






Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development












The editor of this publication wishes to thank his colleagues of the Cotton Project for their assistance. I would also like to thank


Mr. Ian Gibbs

Mr. Michael James

Mr. Mark Byer

Mr. Ralph Farnum

Mr. Charleston Lucas

Mr. Samuel Inniss

for their help. Thanks also to the Chief Agricultural Officer Mr. Barton Clarke for his support in the revision of this document. I hope that this Crop Recommendation will be useful to all who use it.



The Ministry of Agriculture has recognized the tremendous potential and obvious importance of Sea Island Cotton to the Agricultural Sector of Barbados in this the 21stCentury. It is thus making every effort to support and sustain a viable and strong Integrated Cotton Industry.    

This however must be developed on the basis of good and sustained production at the field level, and by bringing more farms, and farmers into sustained high levels of production. This is a crop in which we have some considerable comparative advantage. It is with this in mind that this Crop Recommendation has been updated at this time. It is hoped that it will benefit all who use it.


Acknowledgement ii

Introduction. iii

Contents. iv

Environmental Requirements. 1

Rainfall 1

Soil Type. 1

Seed Material 1

Variety. 1

Field Selection and Soil Conservation Measures. 2

Land Preparation for Uncultivated Lands. 2

Primary Tillage. 2

Secondary Tillage - Seed Bed Preparation. 2

Planting Material 3

Planting Dates. 3

Planting and Spacing. 3

Machine Planting. 3

Hand Planting. 4

Thinning. 4

Weed Control 4

Manually. 4

Mechanically. 4

Chemical Control (Herbicides) 5

Soil Sampling. 5

Fertilization. 6

Pest Control 6

Insect Pest Control 6

Crop Rotation. 6

Pest Scouting. 7

Strict Observance of the Cotton Close Season. 7

Controlling Cotton Pests. 7

Cotton Disease. 9

Some Chemicals Recommended For Control of Cotton Pests. 10

Harvesting. 10

Bags. 11

Storage. 11

Yields. 11

Destruction of Cotton Stalks. 11

The Cotton Close Season. 11

Concessions and Incentives. 12

Concessions. 12

Machinery and Equipment 12

Agricultural Chemicals. 12

Hand Tools. 12

Other Items. 13

Special Inputs. 13

Incentives. 13

Cotton Development 13

Spraying and Weed Control Equipment 14

Rebate on Land Tax. 1

Environmental Requirements


In Barbados cotton is grown under rain fed conditions. The average annual of 1516mm (59.69″) is quite adequate for crop establishment, development and maturity.

Land preparation for cotton production is done during the drier months of the year when the monthly averages are less than 101.6mm (4″) occasionally it may be necessary to do some late preparation during June and July. There are times when it may be necessary to supplement rainfall with some type of irrigation in order to ensure good germination, ensure good boll filling or solve a pest problem.

Soil Type

Cotton can be adequately grown on most soil types in Barbados. The majority of our soil types (such as the red brown, yellow brown, grey brown and black associations) will support the growth of this crop. It is advisable to plant cotton on flat lands where the soil is deep and free draining since cotton does not withstand water-logging

Seed Material


Montserrat Sea Island Cotton (MSI) is the variety currently grown. This variety has the following characteristics:


Seed Weight:                           100 seeds weigh about 13g,

                                                454 g (1lb) gives about 3500 seeds.

Days to squaring:                     About 45 days after planting.

Days to first flower:                  About 60 days after planting

Days to first open boll:             About 120 days after planting.

Number of nodes                      To first fruiting branch

                                                Eleven to Twelve nodes:

Number of seeds per Locule:     This ranges from three to eight.

Boll weight:                              This ranges from 2.5- 3.5g of seed cotton.


Field Selection and Soil Conservation Measures

Field selection should be done with soil conservation and harvesting considerations in mind.

  1. Fields should be chosen near to villages      and on bus routes to provide easy access for those harvesting the crop.       
  2. Plant cotton on flat lands as much as is      possible to avoid soil erosion. Land      with a slope of 15 degrees or greater should not be used for cotton production.     
  3. Furrow along the contours on sloping      land.
  4. Establish head-ditches or storm–drains.
  5. Use Strip tillage to maintain trash cover      in unburnt cane fields.
  6. Tie-ridging is recommended where that      equipment is available.
  7. Establish Khus-Khus grass on the edges of      fields.

Land Preparation for Uncultivated Lands

Land which has not been cultivated for many years needs to be cleared of trees, bush, and major vegetation. The roots of trees and bush need to be dug out, as these will cause severe problems for land cultivation equipment. Depending on the weed status of the field at this stage e.g. If very weedy it should be sprayed with Roundup before primary cultivation is started.

Primary Tillage

Harrow the field in two directions, or Disc plough.

This land preparation should be done in the dry season well in advance of the planting in order to allow for weathering (the crumbling of soil and decomposition of crop residues). Crop stubble can present problems for the planter at the time of sowing.

Once good primary cultivation has been completed, the secondary land preparation is the same for uncultivated lands, as well as recently cultivated lands.

Secondary Tillage - Seed Bed Preparation

Triple super phosphate at the rate of 100 kg /acre should be put in at the start of secondary tillage, so that it can be incorporated into the soil at the furrowing and bedding up stage. At the end of the furrowing stage the seed beds should be either 152.4cm (5ft) or 167.6cm (5ft.6″) in width.

Alternatively one can furrow at 83.8cm (2ft.9″) or 76.2cm (2ft.6″) band the fertilizer in the centre of every other furrow, and then reform the beds.

Moulding discs or Furrowing bodies are used to make beds of suitable width, and a height of 15-20cm (6-8″) to allow for proper drainage.

Start land preparation early in the dry season so there is enough weathering of the soil to give a fine enough tilth to the seed beds. There are however times when rotavation may be needed to achieve this. Land preparation should be completed by the end of July to meet the planting season which starts August 16th

Planting Material

Treated seed will be available from Exclusive Cottons of the Caribbean Inc. Seed should be collected as close as possible to the actual date of planting in order to avoid long term storage on farms. Where however storage of seed becomes necessary it should be in a well ventilated room on wooden pallets.

Under no circumstances should seed be allowed to get wet.

Planting Dates

The planting season starts on August 16th and planting should be completed by the end of September. Cotton planted after this time results in short plants, which do not realize their full yield potential. In worst case scenarios this cotton matures after the harvesting period has finished.

Planting and Spacing

There are two methods of planting: Machine planting and Hand planting.




Machine planting

4.5-5.4 kg/.4ha (10-12 lb/acre)

Hand planting

3.6-4.5 kg/.4ha (8-10 lb/acre)


In both methods of planting the seeds should not be placed deeper than 5cm (2″) into the soil.                                   

Machine Planting

Precision and pneumatic planters can sow at lower seed rates than those above. One should always set the planters to the rate required, and test them for accuracy before planting.

The planters must be adjusted by the top link, and hydraulics of the tractor to ensure that seeds are not placed on the surface of the soil, or not more than 5cm (2″) into the soil.

Hand Planting

The seeds must be placed by hand into soil at depth of 3-5cm (1-2″). The soil covering them should be firmly pressed against the seeds. Some 2-4 seeds are placed in a hole. The holes should be made every 35.5 cm (14″) along the bed.

Persons planting should be equipped with measuring sticks.

One should plant slightly over the required stand to avoid the need to supply the field.

Planting should follow at least 12.7mm (½″) rain rather than in anticipation of it.

Immediately after planting a pre-emergent herbicide should be applied, and definitely no later than 36 hours after planting. A combination of Prowl and Gramoxone can be used. Treflan or Cotoran can also be used as pre-emergent herbicides.


Once planting operations have been completed, thinning can be started as soon as the cotton is about 10 cm (4″) tall. A spacing of 30-36cm (12-14″) is recommended. Growers should aim at 7000-8000 plants per acre as a final stand.

Weed Control

Weeds significantly reduce the yield of cotton. Hence good weed control is important for successful cotton production.

Weeds can be controlled:

  1. Manually – with hand pulling or weeding
  2. Mechanically – utilising inter-row cultivators, moulding discs      and spring tynes. This method is      very efficient
  3. Chemically – with herbicides.


Manual methods are slow, and often costly.


Weeding with inter-row cultivators, moulding discs, or spring tynes, is quite efficient, and where these implements can be used with high clearance tractors, weed control should be continued in the crop right up to canopy closure.

Chemical Control (Herbicides)

Pre-emergence (Herbicides)

These herbicides are generally applied on bare soil for weed suppression immediately after the cotton has been planted and before germination occurs. Definitely no later than 36 hours after planting.

Post-emergence (Herbicides)

Post-emergence herbicides have to be used with much more caution than pre-emergence applications, only a few of them that can be safely sprayed over the top of cotton. Most post-emergent herbicides are applied as a directed spray, covering the inter-row space but not reaching the cotton rows or plants. Use fan jet nozzles with protective shields. The following are examples that are commonly used.


  1. Fusilade –applied at a rate of 1.1-1.7l/acre      (2-3 pts/acre) this herbicide is most effective on young grasses if      applied before they reach the flowering stage.
  2. Daconate (MSMA) – applied at a rate of 1.1-2.9l/acre      (2-5pts/acre) this is most effective as a directed spray when the cotton      is above 10cm (4″) tall. There may be some red discoloration to the plants      which eventually disappears.
  3. N.B. Do not use this      herbicide after flowering starts.
  4. DSMA –This is an herbicide very similar to Daconate and the      same conditions and precautions apply.

Soil Sampling

Soil analysis is a way of assessing the fertilizer requirements for the crop. This however depends on adequate soil sampling, since only a very small quantity of soil is analysed. A minimum of 20 samples should be taken randomly at two depths from the field.e.g.

  1. 0-30cm (0″-12″)
  2. 30-60cm (12″-24″)

Place the samples in bags and label, recording:

  1. Name of field
  2. Date of sampling
  3. Depth of sampling
  4. Condition of soil (wet or dry)

The samples can be taken to the Government Analytical Laboratory at Culloden Road, where analysis will be done.

The Eastern Caribbean Fertilizer Company in St. John also offers a soil testing service.


The following fertilizer recommendation is given as a general guide, there are going to be different soil types, and rain fall regimes across the island. The farmer will need to modify these accordingly.

Triple super phosphate at a rate of 100kg /acre should be applied before planting, and incorporated below the planting depth.

Immediately after thinning band 100kg /acre of 24:0:18 or Sulphate of Ammonia

At first flowering (about 9-11wks after sowing) apply 100kg /acre of Muriate of Potash.

Thereafter, depending on the level of rainfall i.e. (Heavy and consistent) and the condition of the plants split applications of 50kg of 24:0:18. Plants that show a pale yellow colour is usually an indication of a lack of nitrogen.

Muriate of Potash can be used to boost the level of flowering once the plant has gone into the reproductive stage.

Cotton usually responds well to foliar fertilizers. One should choose a foliar fertilizer that contains Sulphur(S), Zinc (Zn),

Magnesium (Mg) and Boron (B). These can be applied during the development stages of the crop.

Pest Control

Insect Pest Control

Cotton in Barbados is attacked by a wide range of insects, most of which can cause serious damage. Almost every stage of development of the plant is prone to attack. The Pink Bollworm is the most devastating pest.

Cotton pest control requires a comprehensive integrated approach in which insecticides are used but they should complement the controlling effect of beneficial insects like the predatory lacewing bugs, ladybird beetles, and various species of parasitic wasps.

An integrated pest control programme for cotton would include:

Crop Rotation

Cotton grown in rotation with sugarcane has tremendous benefits for the cotton farmer. These include a reduction in the build up of cotton pests, maintaining soil fertility in the field, and a reduction in weeds common to cotton fields.

Cotton should not be planted in close proximity to corn, pigeon pea and okra. Corn harbours Heliothis zea, pigeon pea harbours the pod borer (Heliothis virescens) and okra harbours the Pink Bollworm. All three of these insects are important pests of cotton.

Pest Scouting

Pest Scouting is the careful examination of selected plants within a cotton field. The entire plant should be examined i.e. the top and bottom surfaces of leaves, the squares, flowers and bolls. You are essentially looking for pest at any stage of their life cycle (eggs, larvae, pupae or adults). You need to determine whether the pests you find are beneficial to the crop or harmful. This will then determine your plan of action. Checking 25-50 plants well spread out along the diagonal of the field will give you a good indication of what is happening throughout the entire field. These scouting exercises should be dated and recorded on appropriate forms. Scouting should be done at least twice a week once the cotton has started squaring. Any unusual occurrence should also be noted e.g. numerous fallen squares and lots of flared squares.

The information obtained from these scouting exercises determines if pest control is necessary at a particular stage, and what form it should take.

Strict Observance of the Cotton Close Season

See sections after harvesting


Controlling Cotton Pests

Those pests that attack and damage the squares, flowers, and cotton bolls are generally more dangerous than those that only attack the leaves. Hence Pink Bollworm and the Heliothis Bollworms are the most serious. However in recent seasons Thrips have proven to be equally dangerous.









Pink Bollworm

(Pectinophora gossypiella)

The main control   measure is strict observance of the Cotton Close


Acephate® (1 lb per   acre) or

Actara® (34 gm per   acre) or

Lorsban® (2 pt per   acre)

The Cotton Bollworms

(Heliothis spp)


Damage by these   insects occurs from the first squares through to harvest. It is characterized   by small entry holes in the squares and bolls and often many of these damaged   squares fall to the ground. Chemical control is difficult as these pest tend   to easily build up resistance to insecticides. One should use an insecticide   of a different chemical grouping with each spraying. Insecticides: same as   for Pink Bollworm


Thrips spp.

This has become a   major pest in recent years. They are piercing and sucking insects, which   reproduce both sexually, and asexually, and so very large populations build   up very quickly. They feed on the underside of the cotton leaves, which later   turn brown on the upper side and silvery before being shed. With very heavy attacks   fields can be completely defoliated. Thrips attacks are more pronounced in   dry periods.

Aval® (100 gm per   acre) orFlip® (25 gm per acre) or Newmectin® (50ml per acre).


Armyworms (Spodoptera spp.)

The eggs of these   larvae are laid in (large batches on the under surface of leaves. These   larvae can quickly defoliate plants.

Agree® (1 lb per   acre) or NewBt® (1.5 pt per acre)

Cotton Leaf Worm

(Alabama   argillacea)

The eggs of this   green and black larva are laid singly on the top surface of leaves. Larvae   can defoliate the cotton plants.


Agree® (1 lb per   acre) or NewBt® (1.5 pt per acre)

Lesser Leaf Worm

(Anomis impasta)

The larva of this   pest looks similar to the cotton leaf worm mentioned above and is controlled   in the same way.


Agree® (1 lb per   acre) or NewBt® (1.5 pt per acre)

Cotton Aphids

(Aphis gossypii)

These green small   insects are seen early in the crop feeding on young shoots and on the   underside of young leaves. They cause leaf curling, and in heavy infestations   can cause sooty mould formation on   leaves, and seed cotton. Ladybird beetles and the lacewing (Chrysopa)   provide natural control of aphids In outbreak conditions, one of the   following insecticides can be used for aphid control

Orthene® (1lb per   acre) Perfekthion® (1 pt per acre)

Admire® (1.5pt per   acre)

Aval® (100 gm per   acre)



(Bemisia spp)

The large amount of   whiteflies now found appears related to the abuse of insecticides, i.e. over   spraying

Admire® (1.5 pt   /acre)

or Aval® (100 gm per acre)

Red Spider Mite (Tetranychus spp)

The adult mites are   minute, appearing as bright red dots on the under surface of the leaves. They   cause mottling of the leaves which eventually turn red and fall

Newmectin® (50 ml   per acre


Cotton Disease

The only diseases of economic importance recorded in Barbados are Boll Rot, Angular Leaf Spot, and Damping-off.









(Rhizoctonia   spp.)

(Pythium spp.)

The young plants   are a lighter green than normal, and somewhat stunted. Then brown lesions   appear near the soil line, these spread out and get darker, eventually these   plants die.


All planting seed   should be treated with Bronotak

Terraclor-super x   may be applied as an in-furrow spray   to reduce post-emergence Damping-off. Ridomil Gold can also be used.

Angular   leaf spot Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas malvacearum)

Fresh lesions have a water soaked   appearance, dark green, which later turn brown or black. The name angular   leaf spot describes the outline of the   leaf lesions, whose spread is checked   by the veins

The acid delinting   of seeds, or seed treatment with a bactericide. Proper field sanitation, and   deep ploughing of crop residue the spread of this disease

Boll rot

(Rhizopus spp.)  

(Phytophthora spp)

There is rotting of   the boll which is caused by various micro-organisms that develop under very   wet conditions, or are introduced via insect stings or perforations

Dicloran fungicide   at 100-250 gm a.i. /ha prior to or just as the bolls open and repeat every 14   days


Some Chemicals Recommended For Control of Cotton Pests




Active    Ingredient


Mode    of Action


Chemical Grouping























(B.t.),subspecies   Aizawai




B.t. kurstaki

















Cotton planted in August to September can be harvested from January onwards. Harvesting should start when enough mature bolls are fully open, which usually occurs from the middle to the end of January. It is important that harvesting should be supervised for higher yields and a more complete pick. Persons picking cotton should not be allowed to randomly pick all over the fields as they wish, but should be assigned specific rows at a time. Stained cotton and trash should not be harvested


An apron should be tied around the waist forming a “pouch”. Cotton should be picked and placed in the apron and the bags filled periodically.


Light crocus bags (hessian) are excellent for harvesting.


Growers should provide adequate ventilated storage space for up to half their expected cotton crop. As a rough guide it requires 15 sq. ft of floor space to store 100 lbs. of seed cotton. Cotton can also be stored directly in the cart in which it will be transported to the Ginnery.


It is possible to obtain yields of 2000 lbs. of seed cotton per acre with excellent management. Growers, however, should aim for not less than 1200 lbs. of seed cotton per acre.

Destruction of Cotton Stalks

Cotton stalks must be destroyed directly after harvesting is completed. The stalks can be cut and piled. Burning should be a part of the destruction process.

The Cotton Close Season

The Cotton Close Season is from May 1st to August 15th of every year. During this 14 week period, cotton farmers can use a number of methods to clean up their fields. You should swipe, rake and burn the crop residues or swipe the fields and then plough or harrow them. These practices will destroy any of the remaining Pink Bollworm larvae that are in the crop residues. If these are not done and in a timely manner, then Pink Bollworm larvae will remain in the crop residues and ready to infest your new cotton crop when it begins to form bolls. In addition, any wild or volunteer cotton on your property should be destroyed during the close season as these can also harbor the Pink Bollworm. The life cycle of the Pink Bollworm indicates that these measures are absolutely essential if we want to control this very serious pest of cotton.

It is best if okra is not grown on your farm or near to where you are growing your cotton crop. However, if any okra is grown during this period, it should be harvested every two days. Okras are an alternative host plant for the Pink Bollworm and old, dry okra pods will provide a home and food for this serious pest.


Concessions and Incentives

In an effort to support and sustain increased cotton production a number of concessions and incentives have been made available to registered cotton farmers.


These are as follows Duty-Free Concessions for Agricultural Inputs

 Machinery and Equipment

  • Motor mowers (sickle and rotary) not less      than 7.5(h.p.)
  • Ploughs
  • Harrows
  • Sub-soilers
  • Rotavators
  • Planters
  • Fertilizer spreaders
  • Cultivators
  • Boom sprayers
  • Hand or Knap-sack sprayers
  • Dusters
  • Ridgers
  • Brush cutters
  • Harvesters
  • Irrigation Machinery and Equipment
  • Organic Farming Equipment and Materials

Agricultural Chemicals

  • Fertilizers
  • Insecticides used for plant pests
  • Fungicides
  • Weedicides
  • Acaricides
  • Spades
  • Shovels
  • Hoes
  • Forks
  • Bills
  • Sickles

Hand Tools

Any other hand tool approved by the Ministry of Agriculture& Rural Development

 Other Items

  • Cotton Ginning equipment
  • Materials for packaging agricultural produce (e.g. bags, boxes or crates).
  • Any other items approved by the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development.

The Following Items Will Be Allowed Entry Free of Duties But Only On The Certification of The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development That The Importer Is A Bona Fide Registered Farmer/Farming Organization Meeting The Requirements For Such Imports.

Special Inputs

  • Vehicles – including wheel tractors, loaders, trucks, vans and trailers can be accessed through the Ministry of Finance.
  • Electrical generators
  • Power saws
  • Building materials for construction of agricultural buildings.
  • Windmills.
  • Irrigation pumps.
  • Land reforming equipment and rippers, land levelers, ditchers, power augers.
  • Spare parts on agricultural tractors and equipment listed for use in agriculture.
  • Plant machinery and equipment for all aspects of the Cotton Industry.

N.B. Registered farmers can access the Duty – Free Concession by completion of the appropriate form and the necessary documents such as the invoice and bill of lading


Cotton Development

  • The support price for harvesters (cotton pickers) would include a $0.40 incremental increase per pound of cotton harvested as well as other incentives. (August 1999)
  • Price support for cotton for cotton production, to the extent of $4.80 per lb. for seed cotton. (August 2001)
  • A rebate to farmers of $500 per hectare (2.47 acres) for idle land brought back into cotton production will apply to plot sizes from 0.2 hectares (0.49 acres) to 8 hectares (19.7 acres). (August 2001)
  • A rebate to farmers of $250 per hectare (2.47 acres) for idle land brought back into cotton production will apply to plot sizes over 8.0 hectares (19.76 acres). (August 2001)
  • A rebate of 50% of the cost of certification of Organic cotton farms up to a maximum of $2,000 per farm. (August 2001)
  • A ten-year tax holiday for investments in cotton production, processing and marketing to encourage the move from the current stage of production of lint to the value added stages of yarn fabric and final consumer products. (August 2001)
  • A technical assistance fund of $500,000 to assist producers, processors and investors in areas as feasibility studies, market research, project development, market development and engineering. (August 2001)
  • Establishment of a working capital fund of $1.0 million, to be operated on a revolving basis, for persons involved in all aspects of the cotton industry, in an effort to militate against cash flow difficulties. (August 2001)
  • Duty free concessions on plant, machinery and equipment for all aspects of the cotton industry. (August 2001)
  • Legislation that would circumscribe the development of cotton as an integrated industry similar to that, which obtains for sugar. (August 2001)
  • Establishment of a cotton research and development fund based on 1.0% cost from industry proceeds.
  • A one –time grant of $75,000 to re-activate the Barbados Cotton Growers   Association.
  • Provision of $400,000 to assist WISICA in its restructuring programme. (March 2007)
  • Provision of $1 million dollars to facilitate the cotton industry in pursuing investment opportunities as well as for payment for seed cotton. (July 2008)

Spraying and Weed Control Equipment  

  • A rebate of 50% of the      cost of spraying equipment to a maximum of $800.00 on the purchase of      spraying equipment for spraying crops.
  • A rebate of 50% for      tractor mounted spraying equipment up to a maximum of $2000.00.
  • A rebate of 50% for      flame weeders and other non-chemical weed retardants up to a maximum of      $800.00. (August 1999)



Land Cultivation

  • A once-for-all rebate of      $1000 per hectare or ($404) per acre is available to registered farmers to      help cover expenses incurred in bringing woodland back into production.      The land must be certified out of production for at least five (5) years.      The land must be inspected before any improvement is started and after it      is back in production. The rebate can be applied for after production has      started. (Revised June, 2012).
  • A rebate is available for the cultivation      of land holdings up to 10 hectares (24.7 acres)      for rental of land preparation machinery and equipment as follows: (Revised June, 2012).



Rebate   per hectare $

Rebate   per acre























 Disaster Relief Revolving Fund

The revolving loan facility is to assist the agricultural community after the occurrence of a disaster. The Disaster Relief Revolving Fund will be administered under the Agricultural Development Fund and will be capitalized, in the first instance, at $2,000,000.00. (December 2004).


Rebate on Land Tax  

  • The threshold for access      to the rebate on land tax to unimproved and improved land is lowered from      $100,000 and $300,000 respectively to $25,000 and $75,000 respectively.
  • The property transfer      tax for leases of arable agricultural land is reduced from 10% to 0% (October      2002)
  • The above rebates are      accessed at the time of paying Land Tax through the Government’s Land Tax      Department.


N.B. The Agricultural Incentive Scheme can be accessed by the completion of the appropriate form and the necessary invoices and receipts with a 10 cent Barbados stamp.

Please contact your extension officer or MAR Services Unit at 428­4150 Ext.2263/ 2264

or our website: http://www.agriculture.gov.bb for further information.




DISCLAIMER: The information     given herein is for educational purposes only. Reference to commercial products or trade     names is made with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and     no endorsement by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow label directions.



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